Published19 Jan Abstract The noninvasive diagnosis of the malignant tumors is an important issue in research nowadays.
Our purpose is to elaborate computerized, texture-based methods for performing computer-aided characterization and automatic diagnosis of these tumors, using only the information from ultrasound images. In this paper, we considered some of the most frequent abdominal malignant tumors: the hepatocellular carcinoma and the colonic tumors. We compared these structures with the benign tumors and with other visually similar diseases.
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Besides the textural features that proved in our previous research to be useful in the characterization and recognition cancer abdominal area the malignant tumors, we improved our method by using the grey level cooccurrence matrix and the edge orientation cooccurrence matrix of superior order.
As resulted from our experiments, the new textural features increased the malignant tumor classification performance, also revealing visual and physical properties of these structures that emphasized the complex, chaotic structure of the corresponding tissue.
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The colorectal tumors also represent a frequent disease for the population of the developed countries. The golden standard for cancer diagnosis is the biopsy, but this is an invasive, dangerous method that can lead to the spread of the tumor inside the human body. A non-invasive, subtle analysis is due, in order to detect the cancer in early evolution stages, when the tumor can be surgically removed.
We perform this study by using computerized methods applied on ultrasound images. Other types of image acquisition techniques, such as computer tomography CTmagnetic resonance imaging MRIand endoscopy are considered invasive or expensive.
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The texture is an important feature, as it provides subtle information concerning the pathological state of the tissue, overcoming the accuracy of the human perception, through the statistical and multiresolution approaches. The texture-based methods in combination with classifiers were widely used in the domain of malignant tumor characterization and recognition from medical images.
In [ 2 ], Raeth used the textural features in order to distinguish the normal liver from the diffuse liver diseases and from the malignant cancer abdominal area tumors. The features derived from the second-order grey levels cooccurrence matrix, from the edge cooccurrence matrix, as well as other edge and gradient-based features, speckle noise distribution parameters, and the Fourier power spectrum, provided satisfying results concerning the differentiation between the tumoral and nontumoral tissue.
In [ 3 ] the authors computed the first-order statistics the mean grey level and the grey level variancethe second-order grey level cooccurrence matrix parameters and run-length matrix parameters which were used in combination with an artificial neural networks based classifier, as well as with a classifier based on linear discriminants in order to differentiate the malignant liver tumors from hemangioma and from the normal liver.
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The resulted recognition rate was The wavelet transform was also implemented [ 4 ], in order to perform a multi-resolution analysis of the textural features. In [ 5 ] the authors analyzed the fluorescent images of the colonic tissue based on textural parameters derived from cancer abdominal area second order grey level cooccurrence matrix GLCMin order cancer abdominal area distinguish the colonic healthy mucosa versus adenocarcinoma.
However, a systematic study concerning the most relevant textural cancer abdominal area that best characterize the malignant tumors and of the most appropriate methods that lead to an increased diagnosis accuracy is not done.
We perform this in our work by building the imagistic textural model of the malignant tumors. We previously defined the imagistic textural model of the malignant tumors [ 6 ], consisting in the most relevant textural features able to separate the HCC tumor from the que es cancer kaposi similar tissues cirrhotic parenchyma, benign tumorstogether with their specific values mean, standard deviation, and probability distribution.
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In this work, we analyzed new methods for textural features computation, based on the superior order grey level cooccurrence matrix GLCM [ 7 cancer abdominal area, respectively on the superior order edge orientation cooccurrence matrix EOCMthe purpose being to improve the characterization of the abdominal malignant tumors, and to increase the automatic diagnosis accuracy.
In this way, we expect to get a more subtle evaluation procedure than in the case of using the other textural features. The third-order GLCM was experimented for the analysis of the trabecular bones in proximal femur radiographs [ 8 ], as well as for crop classification [ 9 foot verruca causes, but it was never implemented for cancer abdominal area characterization and recognition.
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There are no important realizations in the image analysis domain involving the fifth-order GLCM matrix. The second cancer abdominal area EOCM was implemented by Raeth in [ 2 ] for malignant tumor contour characterization and provided satisfying results in this domain. The third order EOCM was not previously implemented.
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Thus, we analyzed the role that the second- third- and fifth-order GLCM, respectively, the second- and third-order EOCM have, concerning both the subtle characterization of HCC and colonic tumor tissue, as well as the automatic diagnosis of these types of cancer.
Extended Haralick features were defined for the characterization of the tumor texture, and the best orientations of the corresponding displacement vectors were determined in both cases of the superior order GLCM and EOCM. The edge orientation variability feature was also defined in order to characterize the complex structure of the tumor tissue.
The malignant tumors were compared with visually similar tissues. The HCC tumor was compared with the cirrhotic liver parenchyma on which it had evolved and with the benign liver tumors.
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The colonic tumors were compared with the inflammatory bowel diseases IBDas they share, in ultrasound images, many visual characteristics with cancer abdominal area affections. The assessment of the relevant textural features for the characterization of the malignant tumors was also performed, through specific methods such as the correlation-based feature selection CFS [ 10 ] and through the evaluation of the individual attributes based on their information gain with respect to the class [ 10 ].
Powerful classifiers that gave the best results in our former experiments [ 6 ], such as the multilayer perceptron [ 11 ] and the support vector machines SVM [ 11 ], as well as the AdaBoost combination scheme [ 11 ], were adopted for the evaluation of the textural model and of the recognition accuracy.
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The correlation of the textural features with the internal structure and with the properties of the tumor tissue was also discussed. Materials and Methods 2.
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Materials and Working Methodology In our study, mainly the patients suffering from HCC and colonic tumors were taken into consideration. Patients affected by benign liver tumors such as hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia FNH were also considered, being known that these tumors have a similar visual aspect with HCC in many situations. Subjects suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases IBD were taken into account as well, because these affections provided a similar visual aspect of the bowel walls like those provided by the colorectal tumors.
All these patients were previously biopsied. For each patient, multiple images were acquired, corresponding to various orientations of the transducer, using the same settings of the ultrasound machine.
The same number of images was considered for each patient, as described in the experimental section. B-mode ultrasonography was used, in order to preserve the textural properties of the tissues. Rectangular regions of interest were selected inside the tumors, on the liver tissue, or on the bowel giardia la adulti, in areas which were not affected by artifacts.
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Then, the imagistic textural model of the malignant tumors was built according to the steps below, and the role of the new derived textural features in improving the accuracy of the malignant tumor characterization and recognition performance was analyzed. The Imagistic Textural Model of the Malignant Tumors and the Phases Due for Model Building The imagistic textural model of HCC consists of the set of relevant, independent textural features, able to distinguish this tumor from the cancer abdominal area liver parenchyma and from the benign tumors.
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The specific, statistical values of the textural features—mean, standard deviation, and probability distribution—are part of the model. The mathematical description of the imagistic textural model is given below.
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Let be the space of cancer abdominal area potentially relevant textural features, containing a number of such features: The features from are considered in their initial representation, as they appear after applying the image analysis methods. We cancer abdominal area as being the transformed feature space, obtained from the initial feature space,after applying dimensionality reduction methods—mainly feature selection techniques [ 10 ].
The imagistic textural model of the tumor TM consists of a collection of vectorsassociated with each relevant textural featurecontaining the specific values that characterize each analyzed class: The vectors of the imagistic textural model are composed by the specific parameters described by 3where mean the arithmetic mean value and standard deviation are real numbers; the Relevance, represented by an integer, quantifies the importance that the considered textural feature has in the differentiation between HCC and other kinds of tissues.